Bishop Peter Ebere Okpaleke of Ekwulobia, Nigeria, is pictured during Pope Francis' meeting with Nigerian bishops at the Vatican in this April 26, 2018, file photo. Bishop Okpaleke, 59, was among 21 new cardinals named by the pope May 29. (CNS photo/Vatican Media)
Bishop Peter Ebere Okpaleke of Ekwulobia, Nigeria, is pictured during Pope Francis' meeting with Nigerian bishops at the Vatican in this April 26, 2018, file photo. Bishop Okpaleke, 59, was among 21 new cardinals named by the pope May 29. (CNS photo/Vatican Media)
VATICAN CITY — Here are brief biographies of each of the 21 churchmen Pope Francis will induct into the College of Cardinals Aug. 27:

-- English Cardinal-designate Arthur Roche, 72, is prefect of the Dicastery for Divine Worship and the Sacraments, an office whose task is to continue the implementation of the Second Vatican Council's document on the liturgy, "Sacrosanctum Concilium," he told The Tablet Feb. 24, 2022. He came to the Vatican as secretary of the then-Congregation for Divine Worship and the Sacraments in 2012 after leading the Diocese of Leeds since 2004. He served as chairman of the International Commission on English in the Liturgy, overseeing the translation of the Latin liturgical texts into English, from 2002 to 2012.

A few months after Pope Francis restored limits on the pre-Vatican II Mass with his document, "Traditionis Custodes" ("Guardians of the Tradition"), the cardinal-designate was appointed head of the congregation and given the task of implementing the document. He clarified the restrictions and told Catholic News Service in January that the document "is really a call to take the unity of the church, our being together for the celebration of the breaking of the bread and the prayer, very, very seriously indeed."

Born in Batley Carr, Yorkshire, March 6, 1950, he was ordained to the priesthood in 1975. He helped organize the visit of St. John Paul II to York in 1982 and he was appointed general secretary of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales in 1996.

He was ordained auxiliary bishop of Westminster in 2001 and appointed coadjutor bishop of Leeds in 2002, becoming bishop of the diocese in 2004 after his predecessor's retirement.

When he was appointed secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Sacraments in 2012, he was elevated to the rank of archbishop. He became prefect of the dicastery in 2021.

-- South Korean Cardinal-designate Lazarus You Heung-sik became prefect of the then-Congregation for Clergy in 2021, making him the second prelate from Asia to head a Vatican office. Filipino Cardinal Luis Antonio Tagle had been named prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples in 2019.

The 70-year-old cardinal-designate had served as president of the Justice and Peace Committee of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of Korea. He has traveled to communist North Korea four times and has said he hopes for lasting peace and reconciliation on the peninsula.

He was president of Caritas Korea when it got the green light from the North Korean government to coordinate and lead a major aid program with assistance from Caritas Internationalis. Caritas Korea was responsible for helping approximately 5 million poor North Koreans.

As bishop of Daejeon, he welcomed Pope Francis to the city for the sixth Asian Youth Day in 2014 and he participated in the Synod of Bishops on young people in 2018.

Born Nov. 17, 1951, in Nonsan, the cardinal-designate was baptized at the age of 16. He studied in South Korea and Rome, where he was ordained a priest in 1979 for the Diocese of Daejeon. He is active in the Focolare movement.

He was appointed coadjutor bishop of the Diocese of Daejeon in 2003 and became its bishop in 2005. He was elevated to archbishop in 2021 before beginning his role as prefect at the Vatican Congregation for Clergy.

-- Spanish Cardinal-designate Fernando Vérgez Alzaga is president of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and president of the Governorate of Vatican City State, that is, the head of the office in charge of Vatican City State operations. He is the first member of the Legionaries of Christ to become a cardinal.

Born in Salamanca March 1, 1945, he joined the Legionaries in 1965 and was ordained a priest in 1969.

The 77-year-old cardinal-designate has degrees in philosophy and theology, and a diploma as an archivist from the Vatican Secret Archives.

He began serving in the Roman Curia in 1972 and has held a number of positions, including at the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, as head of the Vatican's Internet Office and then as director of its telecommunications and information systems.

Pope Francis appointed him secretary-general of the governorate in 2013 and named him to a newly formed "Commission for Reserved Matters" in 2020 as part of broad reforms to ensure financial transparency and accountability. He became head of the governorate in October 2021.

-- French Cardinal-designate Jean-Marc Aveline was born in Algeria but grew up in the French port city of Marseille, where the 63-year-old has been ministering his entire adulthood. After becoming a priest in 1984, he was named auxiliary bishop in 2013 and then archbishop in 2019.

He shares many of the same concerns as Pope Francis, especially regarding the plight of migrants, the need to guide and inspire young people, the risk poverty and exclusion pose in contributing to extremism, and the danger of populism.

Marseille lies on the Mediterranean and is home to many immigrants, particularly from North Africa, and Muslims make up at least 35% of the population. The cardinal-designate works closely with the city's Muslims. He was a consultor for the then-Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue from 2008 to 2012 and has headed the French bishops' council for interreligious relations since 2017.

He founded an institute of sciences and theology of religions in Marseille in 1992 and has long supported institutions and initiatives aimed at bringing the cities and people bordering the Mediterranean closer together to find answers to common challenges, including the contributions of religions.

-- Nigerian Cardinal-designate Peter Ebere Okpaleke became the first bishop of Ekwulobia in 2020.

Born in Amesi, March 1, 1963, he was ordained a priest of the southern Diocese of Awka in 1992. After his ordination, he spent 20 years in a variety of ministries, including serving as a university chaplain, parish priest, administrator of diocesan finances and diocesan chancellor. After studying canon law in Rome, he joined the Canon Law Society of Nigeria and served as a judge for an interdiocesan tribunal.

Pope Benedict XVI appointed him bishop of Ahiara in 2012, but his formal installation was continually delayed after many laity and clergy opposed his nomination, reportedly because of his ethnicity. He was ordained a bishop more than five months after his appointment, but the ceremony was held at a seminary in another diocese because the situation in Ahiara had not improved.

Even after Pope Francis in 2017 ordered local priests to pledge their obedience to the pope and accept the bishop, the situation remained tense. In early 2018, Bishop Okpaleke resigned saying, "I am convinced in conscience that my remaining the bishop of Ahiara Diocese is no longer beneficial to the church."

The cardinal-designate told Vatican News May 31 that over the six years he was unable to administer the diocese, he took the time to "reflect, to pray and to read" for deeper discernment. Pope Francis named him bishop of the newly created Diocese of Ekwulobia in March 2020.

The 59-year-old cardinal-designate told Vatican News that he seeks to witness to the life of Jesus Christ, his truth and love, in the context of current challenges, such as poverty and exploitation, and to build a dialogue between the Gospel and culture.

-- Cardinal-designate Leonardo Ulrich Steiner of Manaus, Brazil, will be the first cardinal from the Brazilian Amazon. The 71-year-old Franciscan said his election to the College of Cardinals shows "how fondly Pope Francis regards the Amazon."

The pope has repeatedly shown his concern for the region, and the appointment is a further "gesture of affection toward our churches that are in the Amazon and all the work that the Catholic Church has developed here," he said May 29.

Born in Forquilhinha, Brazil, Nov. 6, 1950, the cardinal-designate professed his vows as a Franciscan in 1976 and was ordained a priest in 1978 by his cousin, the late Cardinal Paulo Evaristo Arns, who was also a Franciscan and led the Archdiocese of São Paulo for 28 years.

After serving in a parish, then-Father Steiner was on the formation staff of a seminary and was novice master from 1986 to 1995. He was secretary-general of the Pontifical Antonianum University in Rome from 1999 to 2003. He returned to Brazil and was appointed bishop and head of the Prelature of São Félix in 2005, named auxiliary bishop of Brasília in 2011 and appointed archbishop of Manaus in 2019.

-- Cardinal-designate Filipe Neri Ferrão, 69, is archbishop of Goa, a former Portuguese colony and now an Indian state on the Arabian Sea coast. The Times of India headline about his being named a cardinal said, "After 465 years, Archdiocese of Goa gets its first cardinal."

He is president of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of India (CCBI) -- the national episcopal conference of the bishops of the Latin rite of the Catholic Church in India -- and is a member of the central committee of the Federation of Asian Bishops' Conferences.

Born in Aldona Jan. 20, 1953, he studied at the seminary in Poona and was ordained a priest of the archdiocese in 1979. Sent to Rome, he earned a degree in biblical theology from the Pontifical Urbanian University before going to Belgium for further studies in catechesis and pastoral theology at the Lumen Vitae International Institute.

Named auxiliary bishop of Goa in 1993, he also served as vicar general of the archdiocese. From 1998 to 2002, he chaired the laity commissions of both the CCBI and the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India, which includes the Latin- and Eastern-rite bishops of the country.

St. John Paul II named him archbishop of Goa in 2003, which also comes with the title "patriarch of the East Indies."

The Indian media reported that the cardinal-designate ruffled political feathers in May when he issued a pastoral letter on charity and the social responsibilities of Indian Catholics. "While India is struck by extreme poverty, 73% of our country's resources are controlled by 10% of the population. The existing extreme poverty is therefore the result of the rampant social injustice prevailing in the country," he wrote.

-- U.S. Cardinal-designate Robert W. McElroy, a native of San Francisco, is bishop of San Diego.

Born Feb. 5, 1954, in San Francisco, he grew up in San Mateo County.

The 68-year-old cardinal-designate graduated from Harvard University in 1975 and earned a master's degree in 1976 in American history from Stanford University, where he also later studied for a doctorate in history. He attended St. Patrick's Seminary in Menlo Park, California, and was ordained a priest for the Archdiocese of San Francisco in 1980. After ordination, parish work and serving as secretary to San Francisco Archbishop John Quinn, he pursued more studies, earning a licentiate in theology from the Jesuit School of Theology at Berkeley, a doctorate in moral theology from the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome and a doctorate in political science from Stanford.

Pope Benedict XVI named him an auxiliary bishop of San Francisco in 2010 and Pope Francis named him bishop of San Diego in 2015.

He is author of "The Search for an American Public Theology: The Contribution of John Courtney Murray," Paulist Press, 1989; and "Morality and American Foreign Policy: The Role of Ethics in International Affairs," Princeton University Press, 1992. He also has been published in journals and America magazine, a weekly Jesuit publication.

Bishop McElroy has been vocal in the U.S. bishops' discussions about public political positions and worthiness to receive the Eucharist. In an essay published in 2021 on the website of America magazine, he wrote, "The Eucharist must never be instrumentalized for a political end, no matter how important."

The prelate reissued a warning he gave a few months earlier at a Georgetown University online forum against "weaponization of Eucharist." Then, Cardinal-designate McElroy said: "I do not see how depriving the president or other political leaders of Eucharist based on their public policy stance can be interpreted in our society as anything other than the weaponization of Eucharist and an effort not to convince people by argument and by dialogue and by reason, but, rather, to pummel them into submission on the issue."

-- Cardinal-designate Virgílio do Carmo da Silva, 54, is archbishop of Díli, Timor-Leste -- an island nation in Southeast Asia and Asia's second-most Catholic country after the Philippines.

Even though the number of the Catholics and vocations remains high, the faithful face many challenges, including high unemployment, "brain drain" and proselytism by groups such as Jehovah's Witnesses, the cardinal-designate told Catholic News Service in 2019, when he went from being bishop to archbishop of Dili after Pope Francis elevated the territory. He was made bishop of Díli in 2016 and participated in the Synod of Bishops dedicated to young people in 2018.

A member of the Salesians of St. John Bosco, he said it has been important to reimagine the role and mission of the Catholic Church, which had served as a safe space and strong political voice during the nation's struggle for independence during a 24-year occupation by Indonesia.

The small nation is still struggling to rebuild after militants destroyed its infrastructure. As much as 42% of the population lives below the poverty line, a situation made significantly worse by the COVID-19 pandemic, according to the World Bank.

"Poverty and unemployment remain very high," he had told CNS. But despite the challenges, "the number and quality of the Catholics in Timor is still strong," especially with vocations.

The focus now must be on education, re-evangelization, being close to the people and discerning and responding to their needs, he said in a 2021 interview with Lusa, the Portuguese news agency. The church in Timor-Leste is still too "hierarchical" and it needs to be a place where everyone can feel they belong and "everyone participates in the life of the church," he said.

Born in Venilale Nov. 27, 1967, he made his first profession of vows as a Salesian in 1990. He completed his studies in Manila, Philippines, and was ordained a priest in 1998.

He served as a novice master for the Salesians and studied spirituality at the Pontifical Salesian University in Rome. He was head of a Salesian-run technical school in Fatumaca from 2009 to 2014, and he became provincial superior of the Salesians in East Timor and Indonesia in 2015.

-- Italian Cardinal-designate Oscar Cantoni of Como, said, "the Lord doesn't choose the best, but the lowly and poor."

"I am moved by this completely undeserved gift, and I entrust myself to people's prayers," he told Vatican News May 30, in response to news of his elevation to the College of Cardinals.

The 71-year-old cardinal-designate has focused decades of ministry on serving young people and seminarians. Education and formation are essential, he said, as they are the best ways to help people of faith discover what the Lord is calling them to do.

One of his priests, Father Roberto Malgesini, who cared for migrants, refugees and the homeless, was brutally murdered in 2020 after a mentally ill man he was helping stabbed him. Shortly after the priest's body was found by the volunteers and migrants the priest worked with, Bishop Cantoni arrived at the scene and blessed the deceased priest. Later he referred to him as a "martyr of charity."

Born in Lenno, Sept. 1, 1950, the cardinal-designate was ordained in 1975 as priest of the Diocese of Como and was put in charge of supporting vocations at the diocesan seminary where he would later serve many years as a spiritual director. He also headed the diocese's vocations center and taught religion in public high schools.

He has written for publications on spirituality and books for young adults. He preaches spiritual exercises for priests, and he helped initiate the diocesan order of consecrated virgins.

He was named bishop of Crema in 2005 and bishop of Como in 2016.

-- Indian Cardinal-designate Anthony Poola of Hyderabad, made headlines in his home country for being the first cardinal of the Telugu people from the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and, especially, for being the first Dalit cardinal. "Dalit," which means "trampled upon" in Sanskrit, refers to the most disadvantaged group of people under India's former caste system -- treated as untouchables and often still treated with disrespect today, including in the church at times.

He told AsiaNews May 29 that his appointment was "good news for Dalit Catholics and for the entire church in India. I believe it will bring the encouragement of Pope Francis to many." The appointment also represents "a privilege for the Telugu region and will grow the faith of the church in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana."

"It is God's will that I accept with humility; I am not worthy. I am grateful to Pope Francis for his trust," he said.

An editorial May 31 on the website Matters India said, "That caste is a grave concern and that it needs to be addressed is undeniable, and Archbishop Poola would have to play a significant role in bringing this into the church's conversations and discussions and help find ways to resolve it."

Jesuit Father A. X. J. Bosco, the former Jesuit provincial of Andhra Pradesh and a Dalit rights activist, told AsiaNews after Archbishop Poola was named to the College of Cardinals that "it is a great joy for the Dalits, who represent over 65% of the faithful of the Catholic Church in India," but who hold few positions in church leadership.

"Pope Francis wants the church to be synodal, to listen to everyone, including the least: now the Dalit Christians also feel that they have been heard after years of struggle," the Jesuit priest said.

The 60-year-old cardinal-designate was born Nov. 15, 1961, in the village of Poluru and ordained a priest for the Diocese of Cuddapah in 1992. He was appointed bishop of Kurnool in 2008 and archbishop of Hyderabad in 2020.

He is known to be especially dedicated to the poor and the Dalits as well as for being an open and generous pastor. From 2001 to 2003, he did graduate studies in pastoral healthcare and theology at the Loyola University of Chicago in the United States; he was in residence at the Catholic parish in St. Joseph, Michigan, in the Diocese of Kalamazoo and served as associate pastor of St. Genevieve Church in Chicago.

-- Brazilian Cardinal-designate Paulo Cezar Costa of Brasília, is a theologian who helped with the preparation of World Youth Day in Rio de Janeiro in 2013 as "administrative director."

After hearing about his election to the College of Cardinals, the 54-year-old told Vatican News May 30 that he was grateful to Pope Francis "for the trust placed in me for the confidence in my work."

Born in Valença in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro July 20, 1967, the cardinal-designate was ordained to the priesthood in 1992 and served in parish ministry for 12 years. He holds a doctorate in theology from Rome's Pontifical Gregorian University and has served as an expert for several commissions and groups on doctrine.

He has worked as a diocesan seminary rector and spent many years teaching theology and heading the theology departments at important academic institutions.

In 2010, he was named auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of Rio de Janeiro, where he had a variety of responsibilities in administration, legal affairs and missions. He was named bishop of São Carlos in 2016 and he became archbishop of Brasília in 2020.

He has been active in the field of canon law, and has spoken often about the importance of historical and cultural heritage and the relationship of science and faith. He serves on the commission for culture and education of the Brazilian bishops' conference, and he was elected in 2019 to the board of consulting bishops who guide the work of the Latin American bishops' council, known by its Spanish acronym, CELAM.

He is a member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America and the Dicastery for Promoting Christian Unity.

-- Cardinal-designate Richard Kuuia Baawobr of Wa, Ghana, is an expert in interreligious dialogue, particularly focused on promoting understanding between Christians and Muslims, and is involved in ecumenical dialogue and cooperation with other Christian churches.

He told Ghana News Agency May 30 the news of his elevation came as a surprise because had just been in Rome to attend a meeting at the former Pontifical Council of Promoting Christian Unity as a member of that dicastery "and nobody said anything. I did not suspect anything."

He said he never suspected his name would be among the new cardinals "because in my understanding, it is archbishops who are appointed as cardinals, not the bishops who are in a diocese."

The greatness of being a Christian is serving God and humanity, not in having titles, he said. "What is important is to serve other people with joy."

Born June 21, 1959, in Tom-Zendagangn, he joined the Missionaries of Africa in 1981 and was ordained a priest in 1987. He pursued his studies in Fribourg, Switzerland and London, and studied scripture at the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome.

As a member of the Missionaries of Africa, he served in Congo for four years before heading to Tanzania, where he served in formation for three years. He was the director of formation for his order in France from 1999 to 2004.

In 2004, he was elected assistant to the superior general of the order in Rome, where he worked for six years before being elected in 2010 to a six-year term as superior of the order. As superior, he also was vice chancellor of the Pontifical Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies in Rome from 2010 to 2016. The men's Union of Superior Generals elected him a member of the Synod of Bishops on the family in 2015.

When his term as superior general ended, in 2016 Pope Francis appointed him to lead the Diocese of Wa, where he has been promoting greater public awareness about mental illnesses and outreach by laity and experts to help provide care to those with mental illness who live on the street.

-- Cardinal-designate William Goh Seng Chye, 64, will be Singapore's first cardinal.

Born June 25, 1957, in Singapore to Chinese parents and fluent in Mandarin, he will also be the only ethnic Chinese prelate among the cardinal electors; Cardinal John Tong Hon, retired bishop of Hong Kong, turned 80 in 2019.

The elevation of the archbishop of Singapore to the College of Cardinals reflects "the small but very active" role the church plays in a country where Catholics are a minority but are very much involved with the local and immigrant communities, according to AsiaNews. Catholics number about 300,000 out of a population of 5.6 million, it said.

The cardinal-designate is "deeply humbled by this new appointment of the Holy Father" and "is conscious that this honor and new responsibility conferred on him is also a recognition of the contribution of the faithful in the archdiocese for helping him to build a vibrant, evangelizing and missionary church," the Archdiocese of Singapore said in a statement on its website May 29.

The cardinal-designate was ordained a priest in 1985 after completing his studies in Singapore and at the Pontifical Urbanian University in Rome, followed by studies in dogmatic theology at Rome's Pontifical Gregorian University.

Back in Singapore, he was a formator and lecturer at the St. Francis Xavier Major Seminary from 1992 to 2005. He became rector of the seminary in 2005 and spiritual director of the Catholic Spirituality Center.

He was named coadjutor archbishop of Singapore in 2012 and appointed archbishop in 2013.

One of his priorities has been engaging with young people to understand their aspirations and see how they can contribute to the life of the church, according to ucanews.com. He wants to broaden the scope and effectiveness of communication and understanding within church structures so people may grow in unity and peace, it added.

-- Cardinal-designate Adalberto Martínez Flores of Asunción, Paraguay, will be his country's first cardinal. The 70-year-old prelate was ordained to the transitional diaconate and to the priesthood by now-Cardinal Seán P. O'Malley of Boston after having worked with him in the 1970s at the Spanish Catholic Center in Washington, D.C., while studying philosophy at Oblate College.

Born in Asunción July 8, 1951, he studied economics at the National University of Asunción, before traveling to the United States to perfect his English and begin philosophy studies. He then went to Rome, studying at the Pontifical Lateran University and living with a Focolare community, studying its spirituality and emphasis on promoting unity.

He was ordained to the priesthood in Asunción Aug. 24, 1985, for the Diocese of St. Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands; then-Bishop O'Malley was the head of the diocese. Father Martínez served at parishes in St. Croix and in St. Thomas from 1985 to 1994.

Incardinated into the Archdiocese of Asunción, he was a parish priest there for three years before St. John Paul II named him an auxiliary bishop of the archdiocese in 1997. He worked with the archdiocesan youth movement and served as secretary of the first archdiocesan synod.

In 2000, St. John Paul made him the first bishop of the new Diocese of San Lorenzo. He became bishop of San Pedro in 2007 and, in 2012, was named military ordinary for Paraguay. He served exclusively as the bishop for the armed forces until 2018 when Pope Francis named him bishop of Villarrica del Espíritu Santo. But, at the same time, he was named apostolic administrator of the military ordinariate, a position he continues to hold along with the rank of major general.

In November 2018, he was elected president of the Paraguayan bishops' conference and was elected to a second three-year term in 2021. Pope Francis named him archbishop of Asunción in February.

-- Cardinal-designate Giorgio Marengo, apostolic prefect of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, is the youngest of the new cardinals and will be the youngest member of the College of Cardinals when he receives his red hat. He celebrated his 48th birthday June 7.

Although he had met Pope Francis May 28 with a delegation of Mongolian Buddhist leaders, he told reporters the pope's announcement May 29 that he would be made a cardinal was a complete surprise. "We talked of many things, but he said nothing at all about this."

Since Mongolia has only just over 1,300 Catholics, the cardinal-designate told the Fides news agency that he sees the pope's choice as "a missionary gesture, to express attention and care to a small community and to all the small communities of faithful scattered throughout the world, in those lands where they are a small flock."

Born June 7, 1974, in Cuneo, Italy, he studied philosophy at the Theological University of Northern Italy and did his theology studies at Rome's Pontifical Gregorian University. He made his profession as a Consolata Missionary in 2000 and was ordained to the priesthood in 2001. He earned his doctorate in missiology from Rome's Pontifical Urbanian University in 2006.

He, a Consolata priest from Argentina and three Consolata sisters were sent to Arvaikheer, Mongolia, in 2003, he told Fides, the news agency of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. Thirteen years later, he was named the Consolatas' regional counselor for Asia, superior in Mongolia and pastor of the parish of Mary, Mother of Mercy, in Arvaikheer.

In April 2020, Pope Francis named him a bishop and apostolic prefect of Ulaanbaatar. He was ordained a bishop at the Consolata Shrine in Turin Aug. 8, 2020. In a video message before his ordination, he said the ceremony was supposed to take place in Mongolia but was moved because of the COVID-19 pandemic.

-- Colombian Cardinal-designate Jorge Jiménez Carvajal, the 80-year-old retired archbishop of Cartagena, is a former president of the Latin American bishops' council, known as CELAM, and had spent four days in the hands of kidnappers in 2002 before being rescued by army and national polices forces.

Born in Bucaramanga March 29, 1942, he studied philosophy at the Pontifical Xavierian University in Bogotá and did his theology studies at the major seminary of the Congregation of Jesus and Mary, also known as the Eudists. He made his profession of vows as a Eudist in 1964 and was ordained to the priesthood in 1967.

He taught at the diocesan seminary in Santa Rosa de Osos before joining the formation staff at the Eudists' Valmaría seminary in Bogotá; he also was in charge of the charity section of the Eudists' "El minuto de Dios," which began in 1950 as a one-minute religious reflection on the radio but expanded to include a large network of charitable projects, including health care, construction of houses for the poor and even a university.

After serving as director of studies at the Theological Pastoral Institute of CELAM in Medellín, he was named provincial superior of the Eudists in Colombia and, from 1989 to 1991, served as secretary of the Latin American Confederation of Religious.

St. John Paul II named him bishop of Zipaquirá in 1992; it was while he was bishop of the diocese, about 30 miles north of Bogotá, that he and a priest traveling with him were kidnapped. After their rescue, then-Bishop Jimenez said the guerrillas first said they had been kidnapped for ransom, but he overheard them saying they wanted a prisoner exchange. The Colombian government and members of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, had been fighting for decades.

The bishop also served from 1995 to 1999 as general secretary of CELAM and, from 1999 to 2003, he was the group's president. In 2004, St. John Paul named him coadjutor archbishop of Cartagena and he became archbishop in 2005. He retired in 2021.

-- 80-year-old Cardinal-designate Lucas Van Looy, the retired bishop of Ghent, Belgium, spent a dozen years in South Korea as a Salesian missionary and almost 20 years in Rome as a member of the Salesian order's leadership team before being named bishop of Ghent by St. John Paul II in 2003.

Pope Francis named him a member of the Synod of Bishops on the family in 2015 and the Synod of Bishops on young people in 2018.

He has been a vocal supporter of Pope Francis' vision for a more "synodal church," marked by listening, dialogue and inclusion. He told reporters in 2015 that such a process of respectful listening and dialogue could mark the end of an era where Catholics judge each other and the beginning of "a church of tenderness toward everyone."

Born Sept. 28, 1941, in Tielen, Belgium, he entered the Salesians in 1961. After his philosophy studies in Belgium, he went to South Korea for several years, then returned to Belgium where he earned a degree in missiology from the Catholic University of Leuven. He made his final vows as a Salesian in 1968 and was ordained to the priesthood in 1970.

After ordination, he was sent back to South Korea where he worked as a teacher and a chaplain for Catholic students before being chosen head of the Salesians' Korea province, which he led from 1978 to 1984, when he was called to Rome as a member of the global order's general council. He also served as the director of missions and as head of the Salesians' youth ministry service, before being named vicar of the order's rector major in 1996.

St. John Paul named him bishop of Ghent in late 2003, a position he held until retiring in 2019.

-- Cardinal-designate Arrigo Miglio, the retired archbishop of Cagliari, Italy, who turns 80 July 18, is known throughout Sardinia as a bishop who was close to his people, especially the working poor. As a young bishop, sent to the Diocese of Iglesias by St. John Paul II, he supported miners demanding a living wage and safer working conditions. He even celebrated Christmas with coal miners in the mines in 1994 and 1995.

The Italian island of Sardinia was his adopted home. He was born in the north, in San Giorgio Canavese, July 18, 1942, and studied at the seminaries in Ivrea and Turin, before being sent to Rome. He earned a theology degree from the Pontifical Gregorian University and a degree in Scripture from the Pontifical Biblical Institute. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1967.

After serving at parishes in Ivrea, he was named director of a diocesan shelter for people without a home or in need of special care. Later, he served as director of the Gino Pistoni Alpine House in Gressoney-Saint-Jean, a retreat and vacation center in the Alps founded to provide jobs for people who were unemployed. At the same time, he taught Scripture at the Theological University of Northern Italy.

St. John Paul II named him bishop of Iglesias in 1992 and, seven years later, sent him back up north, appointing him bishop of Ivrea. In 2012, Pope Benedict XVI named him archbishop of Cagliari. He retired in November 2019.

-- Italian Cardinal-designate Gianfranco Ghirlanda, who turns 80 July 5, has been a trusted papal adviser on matters of canon law for decades and has helped educate thousands of canon lawyers for the Catholic Church.

The Vatican has called on him for a variety of important projects, from helping draft Pope Francis' blueprint for the reform of the Roman Curia, "Praedicate Evangelium" ("Preach the Gospel"), to serving as a special canonical adviser to the Legionaries of Christ as the order returned to self-governance after being forced to reckon with the abuse history of its founder and ordered to rewrite its constitutions.

Born in Rome July 5, 1942, he earned a doctorate in civil law from Rome's Sapienza University in 1966 and then entered the Jesuits. After theology studies at Rome's Pontifical Gregorian University, he was ordained to the priesthood in 1973.

He earned his doctorate in canon law from the Gregorian and began teaching at the university in 1975. He served as dean of the canon law faculty from 1995 to 2004 and as rector of the university from 2004 to 2010.

In addition to being called upon for special projects at the Vatican, he has served terms as a consultant to the Vatican congregations for the Doctrine of the Faith, for religious, for Clergy, for the Evangelization of Peoples and for Bishops, as well as the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts and the Dicastery for Laity, the Family and Life. he has served as a lawyer before the Apostolic Signature, the Vatican's supreme court, and as a judge on the Vatican City State's court of appeals.

-- Italian Cardinal-designate Fortunato Frezza serves as one of more than two dozen canons of St. Peter's Basilica, providing liturgical and pastoral services in the basilica. But, for the past 30 years, some Romans have known him more as the chaplain of the professional AS Roma soccer team.

From 1997 to 2014, he served as undersecretary at the general secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, helping with the preparation, unfolding and follow-up for four general assemblies of the Synod of Bishops and six special or regional gatherings.

At a 1993 national conference for soccer-club chaplains, Msgr. Frezza spoke of the chaplain's role in helping players -- especially those who left home as young teens -- mature and find stability when their lives often involve multiple transfers.

A biblical scholar, Cardinal-designate Frezza has written or co-written dozens of books on biblical figures and biblical themes, including a volume on mercy in the Bible for Pope Francis' Year of Mercy, which was celebrated in 2015-16.

Born in Rome Feb. 6, 1942, he attended the minor seminary in Bagnoregio and completed his studies for the priesthood in Viterbo in 1966 and was ordained for the then-Diocese of Bagnoregio. He continued his studies in Rome, earning a degree in theology from the Pontifical Gregorian University and a degree in sacred Scripture from the Pontifical Biblical Institute.

He served as a pastor in the Diocese of Viterbo from 1971 to 1984 while also teaching Scripture, including courses at the Gregorian and at the seminary in Viterbo. In 1983, he began working at the Vatican in the synod office. He was named a canon of St. Peter's Basilica in 2013.